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How to design an experiment to measure coffee preferences?

How to design an experiment to measure coffee preferences?

Imagine a population of people in an office environment. There is a small war going on about whether this brand of coffee machine is better than that one.

How would you go about testing which coffee maker is truly most preferred?

My current plan is to take 10 people out of that population and make them each drink two cups of coffee, one made by each machine. People will be given the choice of preparation styles for their individual trial, black, milk, sugar, or both. Both cups will be made in the exact same way for that individual trial. Whether a given cup will have coffee from machine "A" or "B" will be randomized to avoid people's preference for their first taste being taken into account. Neither the participants, nor the administrator of the test will know which cup was made with which machine, to avoid unconscious biases. Lastly, each participant will be independent of each other to avoid a bias forming from everyone else choosing a particular cup. (Though the randomized nature of the study should make this a moot issue, but still.)

Is there anything I'm forgetting to make this a more perfect study? I would love to have a larger sample than 10, but alas, that's not an option. Also, I'm worried that allowing people to choose how their coffee will be prepared will skew the results, but as long as both cups within a trial are made the same way, it shouldn't be a problem, right?


The study design sounds pretty good. Some of the good things you are proposing:

  • Using a repeated measures design will give you more statistical power than a between subjects design, which is particularly useful when your sample size is small.
  • Randomising or counterbalancing for order should mostly control for order effects.
  • Double blind will focus the test on taste rather than branding and as you say limit experimenter effects

A few further suggestions:

  • You could provide a little bread and water between the two tastings or separate the tastings by some longer period of time to limit any residual taste effects from the first taste.
  • And yes, as you say, increasing sample size will increase your statistical power. That said, if your sample is your population (e.g., you have an office of 10 people), then the smaller sample size doesn't matter.
  • You should consider how the response scale you will use for rating taste. You could simple get a binary preference. But I think it might be better to use some form of scale that rates preference in addition to an explicit question at the end about preference.

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Keywords : packaging design, visual metaphor, grounded cognition, textual claim, flavor evaluation

Citation: Fenko A, de Vries R and van Rompay T (2018) How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers’ Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation. Front. Psychol. 9:53. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00053

Received: 31 October 2017 Accepted: 15 January 2018
Published: 05 February 2018.

Carlos Velasco, BI Norwegian Business School, Norway

Felipe Reinoso Carvalho, KU Leuven, Belgium
Franck Celhay, Montpellier Business School, France

Copyright © 2018 Fenko, de Vries and van Rompay. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


Question: 1. Soda Preference. You Would Like To Conduct An Experiment In Class To See If Your Class- Mates Prefer The Taste Of Regular Coke Or Diet Coke. Briefly Outline A Design For This Study. 2. Sampling Strategies. A Statistics Student Who Is Curious About The Relationship Between The Amount Of Time Students Spend On Social Networking Sites And Their Performance .

1. Soda preference. You would like to conduct an experiment in class to see if your class- mates prefer the taste of regular Coke or Diet Coke. Briefly outline a design for this study.

2. Sampling strategies. A statistics student who is curious about the relationship between the amount of time students spend on social networking sites and their performance at school decides to conduct a survey. Various research strategies for collecting data are described below. In each, name the sampling method proposed and any bias you might expect.

(a) He randomly samples 40 students from the study’s population, gives them the survey, asks them to fill it out and bring it back the next day.

(b) He gives out the survey only to his friends, making sure each one of them fills out the survey.

(c) He posts a link to an online survey on Facebook and asks his friends to fill out the survey.

(d) He randomly samples 5 classes and asks a random sample of students from those classes to fill out the survey.

3. Haters are gonna hate, study confirms. A study published in the Journal of Personal- ity and Social Psychology asked a group of 200 randomly sampled men and women to evaluate how they felt about various subjects, such as camping, health care, architecture, taxidermy, crossword puzzles, and Japan in order to measure their dispositional attitude towards mostly independent stimuli. Then, they presented the participants with information about a new product: a microwave oven. This microwave oven does not exist, but the participants didn’t know this, and were given three positive and three negative fake reviews. People who reacted positively to the subjects on the dispositional attitude measurement also tended to react positively to the microwave oven, and those who reacted negatively also tended to react negatively to it. Researchers concluded that “some people tend to like things, whereas others tend to dislike things, and a more thorough understanding of this tendency will lead to a more thorough understanding of the psychology of attitudes.”60

(a) What are the cases?
(b) What is (are) the response variable(s) in this study?

(c) What is (are) the explanatory variable(s) in this study? (d) Does the study employ random sampling?

(e) Is this an observational study or an experiment? Explain your reasoning.
(f) Can we establish a causal link between the explanatory and response variables?

(g) Can the results of the study be generalized to the population at large?


What is the difference between replicates and repeats?

Repeat and replicate measurements are both multiple response measurements taken at the same combination of factor settings but repeat measurements are taken during the same experimental run or consecutive runs, while replicate measurements are taken during identical but different experimental runs, which are often randomized.

It is important to understand the differences between repeat and replicate response measurements. These differences affect the structure of the worksheet and the columns in which you enter the response data, which in turn affects how Minitab interprets the data. You enter repeats across rows of multiple columns, while you enter replicates down a single column.

Whether you use repeats or replicates depends on the sources of variability you want to explore and your resource constraints. Because replicates are from different experimental runs, usually spread along a longer period of time, they can include sources of variability that are not included in repeat measurements. For example, replicates can include variability from changing equipment settings between runs or variability from other environmental factors that may change over time. Replicate measurements can be more expensive and time-consuming to collect. You can create a design with both repeats and replicates, which enables you to examine multiple sources of variability.


Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior

Objective: Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food.

Design: In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a TV program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits, or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment.

Main outcome measures: Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure.

Results: Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences.

Conclusion: These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.


Relating to the Real World

Green and Glasgow 9 have pointed out the incongruity between increasing demands for evidence-based practice and the fact that most evidence-based recommendations for behavioral interventions are derived from highly controlled efficacy trials. The highly controlled nature of efficacy research is good in that it is likely more possible to draw causal inferences from the designs used (often randomized trials). But this focus on internal validity can reduce external relevance, and generalizability can decrease, limiting dissemination. Practitioners call for more studies to be conducted in settings where community constraints, for example, are prioritized over optimal conditions and settings—specifically testing the fit of interventions in real-world settings. Feasibility studies should be especially useful in helping to fill this important gap in the research literature, and new criteria and measures have been proposed (e.g., Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance [RE-AIM]) to evaluate the relevant outcomes. 10

To ensure that feasibility studies indeed reflect the realities of community and practice settings, it is essential that practitioners and community members be involved in meaningful ways in conceptualizing and designing feasibility research. Adhering to published principles of community-based participatory research 11 , 12 should help in this regard, with the added benefit of helping to determine whether interventions are truly acceptable to their intended audience.


Chapter 3: Research Methods

3. An experimenter conducts a study in which she wants to look at the effects of altitude on psychological well-being. To do this she randomly allocates people to two groups and takes one group up in a plane to a height of 1000 metres and leaves the other group in the airport terminal as a control group. When the plane is in the air she seeks to establish the psychological well-being of both groups. Which of the following is a potential confound, threatening the internal validity of the study? [TY3.3]

  1. The reliability of the questionnaire that she uses to establish psychological health.
  2. The size of the space in which the participants are confined.
  3. The susceptibility of the experimental group to altitude sickness.
  4. The susceptibility of the control group to altitude sickness.
  5. The age of people in experimental and control groups.

4. What distinguishes the experimental method from the quasi-experimental method? [TY3.4]

  1. The scientific status of the research.
  2. The existence of an independent variable.
  3. The existence of different levels of an independent variable.
  4. The sensitivity of the dependent variable.
  5. The random assignment of participants to conditions.

5. Which of the following is not an advantage of the survey/correlational method? [TY3.5]

  1. It allows researchers to examine a number of different variables at the same time.
  2. It allows researchers to examine the relationship between variables in natural settings.
  3. It allows researchers to make predictions based on observed relationships between variables.
  4. It allows researchers to explain observed relationships between variables.
  5. It is often more convenient than experimental methods.

6. Which of the following statements is true? [TY3.6]

  1. Case studies have played no role in the development of psychological theory.
  2. Case studies have all of the weaknesses and none of the strengths of larger studies.
  3. Case studies have none of the weaknesses and all of the strengths of larger studies.
  4. Case studies should only be conducted if every other option has been ruled out.
  5. None of the above.

7. An experimenter, Tom, conducts an experiment to see whether accuracy of responding and reaction time are affected by consumption of alcohol. To do this, Tom conducts a study in which students at university A react to pairs of symbols by saying ‘same’ or ‘different’ after consuming two glasses of water and students at university B react to pairs of symbols by saying ‘same’ or ‘different’ after consuming two glasses of wine. Tom predicts that reaction times will be slower and that there will be more errors in the responses of students who have consumed alcohol. Which of the following statements is not true? [TY3.7]

  1. The university attended by participants is a confound.
  2. The experiment has two dependent variables.
  3. Reaction time is the independent variable.
  4. Tom’s ability to draw firm conclusions about the impact of alcohol on reaction time would be improved by assigning participants randomly to experimental conditions.
  5. This study is actually a quasi-experiment.

8. What is an extraneous variable? [TY3.8]

  1. A variable that can never be manipulated.
  2. A variable that can never be controlled.
  3. A variable that can never be measured.
  4. A variable that clouds the interpretation of results.
  5. None of the above.

9. Which of the following statements is true? [TY3.9]

  1. The appropriateness of any research method is always determined by the research question and the research environment.
  2. Good experiments all involve a large number of participants.
  3. Experiments should be conducted in laboratories in order to improve experimental control.
  4. Surveys have no place in good psychological research.
  5. Case studies are usually carried out when researchers are too lazy to find enough participants.

10. A piece of research that is conducted in a natural (non-artificial) setting is called: [TY3.10]

  1. A case study.
  2. A field study.
  3. A quasi-experiment.
  4. A survey.
  5. An observational study.

11. “Measures designed to gain insight into particular psychological states or processes that involve recording performance on particular activities or tasks.” What type of measures does this glossary entry describe?

  1. State measures.
  2. Behavioural measures.
  3. Physiological measures.
  4. Activity measures.
  5. Performance measures.

12. “An approach to psychology that asserts that human behaviour can be understood in terms of directly observable relationships (in particular, between a stimulus and a response) without having to refer to underlying mental states.” Which approach to psychology is this a glossary definition of?

  1. Behaviourism.
  2. Freudianism.
  3. Cognitivism.
  4. Radical observationism.
  5. Marxism.

13. “The complete set of events, people or things that a researcher is interested in and from which any sample is taken.” What does this glossary entry define?

  1. Total sample.
  2. Complete sample.
  3. Reference sample.
  4. Reference group.
  5. Population.

14. “Either the process of reaching conclusions about the effect of one variable on another, or the outcome of such a process.” What does this glossary entry define?

  1. Causal inference.
  2. Induction.
  3. Deduction.
  4. Inductive reasoning.
  5. Inferential accounting.

15. “The extent to which the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable has been correctly interpreted.” Which construct is this a glossary definition of?


Taguchi Loss Function

The goal of the Taguchi method is to reduce costs to the manufacturer and to society from variability in manufacturing processes. Taguchi defines the difference between the target value of the performance characteristic of a process, &tau, and the measured value, y, as a loss function as shown below.

The constant, kc, in the loss function can be determined by considering the specification limits or the acceptable interval, delta.

The difficulty in determining kc is that &tau and C are sometimes difficult to define.

If the goal is for the performance characteristic value to be minimized, the loss function is defined as follows:

If the goal is for the performance characteristic value to maximized, the loss function is defined as follows:

The loss functions described here are the loss to a customer from one product. By computing these loss functions, the overall loss to society can also be calculated.


Activity 2: investigating handedness

Research suggests that around 10% of the population are left handed or 'sinistral'.

You are going to design a study to compare two types of A-level student. You are aiming to see whether left handedness is more common in some subject groups, such as art students or geographers.

Tasks

Consider whether you will carry out an observation &ndash eg by counting the number of left handers and right handers from within lessons you attend, or whether you will use a verbal survey of students in the common room.

Materials

Describe any materials needed for your chosen method. Remember, if someone wanted to replicate your study they would need to know exactly what you did.

Participants

Describe and justify your choice of the A-level subject groups you have chosen for this investigation. Include information about the size of the sample in each condition.

Ethical issues

Consider and compare at least two ethical issues associated with each method before deciding which one you will use. How, for example, would you gain consent from students you are observing? How would you gain consent from a verbal survey?

Identify and justify the type of data (level of measurement) you will collect (will it be nominal, ordinal or interval?).

Consider two potential methodological variables associated the use of your chosen method. For example, are demand characteristics likely to be a problem?

Results

Once you have collected your data, summarise it into a correctly labelled pie chart for each of the subject group you measured (eg artists and geographers). Do your findings reflect 10% left handedness in both groups?

References

In order to practise the skill of reference writing, find three references for studies which have investigated handedness. Include them here in an academically accepted format.

Hint: look at the reference section of an academic text book. What do you notice about their order and format?


Browse Full Outline

A well-designed and constructed experiment will be robust under questioning, and will focus criticism on conclusions, rather than potential experimental errors. A sound experimental design should follow the established scientific protocols and generate good statistical data.

As an example, experiments on an industrial scale can cost millions of dollars. Repeating the experiment because it had poor control groups, or insufficient samples for a statistical analysis, is not an option. For this reason, the design phase is possibly the most crucial.


Relating to the Real World

Green and Glasgow 9 have pointed out the incongruity between increasing demands for evidence-based practice and the fact that most evidence-based recommendations for behavioral interventions are derived from highly controlled efficacy trials. The highly controlled nature of efficacy research is good in that it is likely more possible to draw causal inferences from the designs used (often randomized trials). But this focus on internal validity can reduce external relevance, and generalizability can decrease, limiting dissemination. Practitioners call for more studies to be conducted in settings where community constraints, for example, are prioritized over optimal conditions and settings—specifically testing the fit of interventions in real-world settings. Feasibility studies should be especially useful in helping to fill this important gap in the research literature, and new criteria and measures have been proposed (e.g., Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance [RE-AIM]) to evaluate the relevant outcomes. 10

To ensure that feasibility studies indeed reflect the realities of community and practice settings, it is essential that practitioners and community members be involved in meaningful ways in conceptualizing and designing feasibility research. Adhering to published principles of community-based participatory research 11 , 12 should help in this regard, with the added benefit of helping to determine whether interventions are truly acceptable to their intended audience.


Taguchi Loss Function

The goal of the Taguchi method is to reduce costs to the manufacturer and to society from variability in manufacturing processes. Taguchi defines the difference between the target value of the performance characteristic of a process, &tau, and the measured value, y, as a loss function as shown below.

The constant, kc, in the loss function can be determined by considering the specification limits or the acceptable interval, delta.

The difficulty in determining kc is that &tau and C are sometimes difficult to define.

If the goal is for the performance characteristic value to be minimized, the loss function is defined as follows:

If the goal is for the performance characteristic value to maximized, the loss function is defined as follows:

The loss functions described here are the loss to a customer from one product. By computing these loss functions, the overall loss to society can also be calculated.


Activity 2: investigating handedness

Research suggests that around 10% of the population are left handed or 'sinistral'.

You are going to design a study to compare two types of A-level student. You are aiming to see whether left handedness is more common in some subject groups, such as art students or geographers.

Tasks

Consider whether you will carry out an observation &ndash eg by counting the number of left handers and right handers from within lessons you attend, or whether you will use a verbal survey of students in the common room.

Materials

Describe any materials needed for your chosen method. Remember, if someone wanted to replicate your study they would need to know exactly what you did.

Participants

Describe and justify your choice of the A-level subject groups you have chosen for this investigation. Include information about the size of the sample in each condition.

Ethical issues

Consider and compare at least two ethical issues associated with each method before deciding which one you will use. How, for example, would you gain consent from students you are observing? How would you gain consent from a verbal survey?

Identify and justify the type of data (level of measurement) you will collect (will it be nominal, ordinal or interval?).

Consider two potential methodological variables associated the use of your chosen method. For example, are demand characteristics likely to be a problem?

Results

Once you have collected your data, summarise it into a correctly labelled pie chart for each of the subject group you measured (eg artists and geographers). Do your findings reflect 10% left handedness in both groups?

References

In order to practise the skill of reference writing, find three references for studies which have investigated handedness. Include them here in an academically accepted format.

Hint: look at the reference section of an academic text book. What do you notice about their order and format?


Browse Full Outline

A well-designed and constructed experiment will be robust under questioning, and will focus criticism on conclusions, rather than potential experimental errors. A sound experimental design should follow the established scientific protocols and generate good statistical data.

As an example, experiments on an industrial scale can cost millions of dollars. Repeating the experiment because it had poor control groups, or insufficient samples for a statistical analysis, is not an option. For this reason, the design phase is possibly the most crucial.


Question: 1. Soda Preference. You Would Like To Conduct An Experiment In Class To See If Your Class- Mates Prefer The Taste Of Regular Coke Or Diet Coke. Briefly Outline A Design For This Study. 2. Sampling Strategies. A Statistics Student Who Is Curious About The Relationship Between The Amount Of Time Students Spend On Social Networking Sites And Their Performance .

1. Soda preference. You would like to conduct an experiment in class to see if your class- mates prefer the taste of regular Coke or Diet Coke. Briefly outline a design for this study.

2. Sampling strategies. A statistics student who is curious about the relationship between the amount of time students spend on social networking sites and their performance at school decides to conduct a survey. Various research strategies for collecting data are described below. In each, name the sampling method proposed and any bias you might expect.

(a) He randomly samples 40 students from the study’s population, gives them the survey, asks them to fill it out and bring it back the next day.

(b) He gives out the survey only to his friends, making sure each one of them fills out the survey.

(c) He posts a link to an online survey on Facebook and asks his friends to fill out the survey.

(d) He randomly samples 5 classes and asks a random sample of students from those classes to fill out the survey.

3. Haters are gonna hate, study confirms. A study published in the Journal of Personal- ity and Social Psychology asked a group of 200 randomly sampled men and women to evaluate how they felt about various subjects, such as camping, health care, architecture, taxidermy, crossword puzzles, and Japan in order to measure their dispositional attitude towards mostly independent stimuli. Then, they presented the participants with information about a new product: a microwave oven. This microwave oven does not exist, but the participants didn’t know this, and were given three positive and three negative fake reviews. People who reacted positively to the subjects on the dispositional attitude measurement also tended to react positively to the microwave oven, and those who reacted negatively also tended to react negatively to it. Researchers concluded that “some people tend to like things, whereas others tend to dislike things, and a more thorough understanding of this tendency will lead to a more thorough understanding of the psychology of attitudes.”60

(a) What are the cases?
(b) What is (are) the response variable(s) in this study?

(c) What is (are) the explanatory variable(s) in this study? (d) Does the study employ random sampling?

(e) Is this an observational study or an experiment? Explain your reasoning.
(f) Can we establish a causal link between the explanatory and response variables?

(g) Can the results of the study be generalized to the population at large?


What is the difference between replicates and repeats?

Repeat and replicate measurements are both multiple response measurements taken at the same combination of factor settings but repeat measurements are taken during the same experimental run or consecutive runs, while replicate measurements are taken during identical but different experimental runs, which are often randomized.

It is important to understand the differences between repeat and replicate response measurements. These differences affect the structure of the worksheet and the columns in which you enter the response data, which in turn affects how Minitab interprets the data. You enter repeats across rows of multiple columns, while you enter replicates down a single column.

Whether you use repeats or replicates depends on the sources of variability you want to explore and your resource constraints. Because replicates are from different experimental runs, usually spread along a longer period of time, they can include sources of variability that are not included in repeat measurements. For example, replicates can include variability from changing equipment settings between runs or variability from other environmental factors that may change over time. Replicate measurements can be more expensive and time-consuming to collect. You can create a design with both repeats and replicates, which enables you to examine multiple sources of variability.


Chapter 3: Research Methods

3. An experimenter conducts a study in which she wants to look at the effects of altitude on psychological well-being. To do this she randomly allocates people to two groups and takes one group up in a plane to a height of 1000 metres and leaves the other group in the airport terminal as a control group. When the plane is in the air she seeks to establish the psychological well-being of both groups. Which of the following is a potential confound, threatening the internal validity of the study? [TY3.3]

  1. The reliability of the questionnaire that she uses to establish psychological health.
  2. The size of the space in which the participants are confined.
  3. The susceptibility of the experimental group to altitude sickness.
  4. The susceptibility of the control group to altitude sickness.
  5. The age of people in experimental and control groups.

4. What distinguishes the experimental method from the quasi-experimental method? [TY3.4]

  1. The scientific status of the research.
  2. The existence of an independent variable.
  3. The existence of different levels of an independent variable.
  4. The sensitivity of the dependent variable.
  5. The random assignment of participants to conditions.

5. Which of the following is not an advantage of the survey/correlational method? [TY3.5]

  1. It allows researchers to examine a number of different variables at the same time.
  2. It allows researchers to examine the relationship between variables in natural settings.
  3. It allows researchers to make predictions based on observed relationships between variables.
  4. It allows researchers to explain observed relationships between variables.
  5. It is often more convenient than experimental methods.

6. Which of the following statements is true? [TY3.6]

  1. Case studies have played no role in the development of psychological theory.
  2. Case studies have all of the weaknesses and none of the strengths of larger studies.
  3. Case studies have none of the weaknesses and all of the strengths of larger studies.
  4. Case studies should only be conducted if every other option has been ruled out.
  5. None of the above.

7. An experimenter, Tom, conducts an experiment to see whether accuracy of responding and reaction time are affected by consumption of alcohol. To do this, Tom conducts a study in which students at university A react to pairs of symbols by saying ‘same’ or ‘different’ after consuming two glasses of water and students at university B react to pairs of symbols by saying ‘same’ or ‘different’ after consuming two glasses of wine. Tom predicts that reaction times will be slower and that there will be more errors in the responses of students who have consumed alcohol. Which of the following statements is not true? [TY3.7]

  1. The university attended by participants is a confound.
  2. The experiment has two dependent variables.
  3. Reaction time is the independent variable.
  4. Tom’s ability to draw firm conclusions about the impact of alcohol on reaction time would be improved by assigning participants randomly to experimental conditions.
  5. This study is actually a quasi-experiment.

8. What is an extraneous variable? [TY3.8]

  1. A variable that can never be manipulated.
  2. A variable that can never be controlled.
  3. A variable that can never be measured.
  4. A variable that clouds the interpretation of results.
  5. None of the above.

9. Which of the following statements is true? [TY3.9]

  1. The appropriateness of any research method is always determined by the research question and the research environment.
  2. Good experiments all involve a large number of participants.
  3. Experiments should be conducted in laboratories in order to improve experimental control.
  4. Surveys have no place in good psychological research.
  5. Case studies are usually carried out when researchers are too lazy to find enough participants.

10. A piece of research that is conducted in a natural (non-artificial) setting is called: [TY3.10]

  1. A case study.
  2. A field study.
  3. A quasi-experiment.
  4. A survey.
  5. An observational study.

11. “Measures designed to gain insight into particular psychological states or processes that involve recording performance on particular activities or tasks.” What type of measures does this glossary entry describe?

  1. State measures.
  2. Behavioural measures.
  3. Physiological measures.
  4. Activity measures.
  5. Performance measures.

12. “An approach to psychology that asserts that human behaviour can be understood in terms of directly observable relationships (in particular, between a stimulus and a response) without having to refer to underlying mental states.” Which approach to psychology is this a glossary definition of?

  1. Behaviourism.
  2. Freudianism.
  3. Cognitivism.
  4. Radical observationism.
  5. Marxism.

13. “The complete set of events, people or things that a researcher is interested in and from which any sample is taken.” What does this glossary entry define?

  1. Total sample.
  2. Complete sample.
  3. Reference sample.
  4. Reference group.
  5. Population.

14. “Either the process of reaching conclusions about the effect of one variable on another, or the outcome of such a process.” What does this glossary entry define?

  1. Causal inference.
  2. Induction.
  3. Deduction.
  4. Inductive reasoning.
  5. Inferential accounting.

15. “The extent to which the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable has been correctly interpreted.” Which construct is this a glossary definition of?


Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior

Objective: Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food.

Design: In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a TV program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits, or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment.

Main outcome measures: Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure.

Results: Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences.

Conclusion: These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.


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Keywords : packaging design, visual metaphor, grounded cognition, textual claim, flavor evaluation

Citation: Fenko A, de Vries R and van Rompay T (2018) How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers’ Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation. Front. Psychol. 9:53. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00053

Received: 31 October 2017 Accepted: 15 January 2018
Published: 05 February 2018.

Carlos Velasco, BI Norwegian Business School, Norway

Felipe Reinoso Carvalho, KU Leuven, Belgium
Franck Celhay, Montpellier Business School, France

Copyright © 2018 Fenko, de Vries and van Rompay. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


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