Are inhibitory synapses governed by different chemicals than excitatory synapses?

Are inhibitory synapses governed by different chemicals than excitatory synapses?

If a neuron has both excitatory and inhibitory chemical synapses providing it with input, is it true in all organisms that the chemicals that cause the inhibition are distinct from those that cause the excitation?

Related question:
What is "synaptic polarity" in a chemical synapse?

Short answer
I cannot give an exclusive answer, but if you are talking about a schoolbook neuron with different neurons synapsing onto it, then excitation is indeed generally mediated by another neurotransmitter than inhibition. Why?…

  • First and foremost. While recognizing that neurotransmitters in themselves are not excitatory or inhibitory, it is the receptors that govern their workings, it is a fact that in the central nervous system the principal excitatory neurotransmitter is glutamate, and the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter is GABA. In fact, none of the Glu receptors (ionotropic or metabotropic) afaik is inhibitory, and none of the GABA receptors is excitatory.
  • Secondly, from a postsynaptic point of view, synapses with different input cells are separate. In other words, a glutamatergic neuron never secretes GABA in the same synapse or vice versa. In effect, neurotransmitter systems are separated. Often, a principal neurotransmitter may be accompanied by neuromodulators, but never will one neuron release opposite effector molecules. Instead, opposing inputs are imposed by separate cells, each with their own neurotransmitter system.
  • The neurotransmitter acetylcholine can be excitatory at the neuromuscular junction in skeletal muscle, causing the muscle to contract. In contrast, it is inhibitory in the heart, where it slows heart rate. So Ach can have dualistic and even opposing actions, but the respective receptors are different and geographically segregated in different neurons;
  • But, this is schoolbook, anthropocentric knowledge, and if you ask any creature, anywhere in the multiverse, then yeah… I don't know.

Excitatory synapse

An excitatory synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell. Neurons form networks through which nerve impulses travel, each neuron often making numerous connections with other cells. These electrical signals may be excitatory or inhibitory, and, if the total of excitatory influences exceeds that of the inhibitory influences, the neuron will generate a new action potential at its axon hillock, thus transmitting the information to yet another cell. [1]

This phenomenon is known as an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). It may occur via direct contact between cells (i.e., via gap junctions), as in an electrical synapse, but most commonly occurs via the vesicular release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic axon terminal into the synaptic cleft, as in a chemical synapse. [2]

The excitatory neurotransmitters, the most common of which is glutamate, then migrate via diffusion to the dendritic spine of the postsynaptic neuron and bind a specific transmembrane receptor protein that triggers the depolarization of that cell. [1] Depolarization, a deviation from a neuron's resting membrane potential towards its threshold potential, increases the likelihood of an action potential and normally occurs with the influx of positively charged sodium (Na + ) ions into the postsynaptic cell through ion channels activated by neurotransmitter binding.

Types of Graded Potentials

For the unipolar cells of sensory neurons—both those with free nerve endings and those within encapsulations—graded potentials develop in the dendrites that influence the generation of an action potential in the axon of the same cell. This is called a generator potential . For other sensory receptor cells, such as taste cells or photoreceptors of the retina, graded potentials in their membranes result in the release of neurotransmitters at synapses with sensory neurons. This is called a receptor potential .

A postsynaptic potential (PSP) is the graded potential in the dendrites of a neuron that is receiving synapses from other cells. Postsynaptic potentials can be depolarizing or hyperpolarizing. Depolarization in a postsynaptic potential is called an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) because it causes the membrane potential to move toward threshold. Hyperpolarization in a postsynaptic potential is an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) because it causes the membrane potential to move away from threshold.

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Stankov's Universal Law Press

The Astral-Energetic and Pharmacological Basis of Psychedelic Drugs in Opening Human Consciousness for the Multidimensionality of the 5th Dimension From the Point of View of the New General Theory of Biological Regulation of the Universal Law

A Novel and Unique Scientific Approach to Human Psychedelic, Transcendental Experience

By Georgi Stankov, MD, July 14, 2011, Copyright 2011


This article opens a new venue in our scientific approach as to how human consciousness and its physical vessel – the brain – operates from an astral-energetic point of view. For the first time in the history of science I will present a unique and novel explanation to two fundamental aspects of human existence and experience that have not been understood at all by both, scientists and spiritually evolved persons:

1. What mechanism is responsible for the amnesia – for the veil of forgetfulness with respect to the pristine realms of the soul – that is laid upon human consciousness at birth when the soul enters irreversibly the physical body of the incarnated entity? This amnesia is at the core of all human experience in the duality of the 3D space-time on earth and is the source of all atrocities and dark actions, which are so typical for humanity on this planet.

2. How can the amnesia of the human brain and the narrow-minded daily consciousness of the incarnated entity be responsibly lifted as to enable the entity to acquire a glimpse into the staggering multidimensionality, simultaneity and synchronicity of the 5th and higher dimensions of the soul, which many human beings will begin to experience by the end of this year and certainly after the planned planetary Ascension in December 2012?

The effort, which I shall undertake in this essay, is highly ambitious, as it amalgamates for the first time fundamental concepts of current bio-science, pharmacology and pharmacy with completely new ideas on the astral-energetic regulation of the human organism and the central nervous system (CNS). These ideas have been developed after I discovered the Universal Law of Nature and implemented it in bio-science and medicine (for further information see volume III: “The General Theory of Biological Regulation”).

In order to keep this article readable, I will refrain from complex scientific terminology. However, I must inevitably introduce some basic technical terms as to preserve the clarity and the scientific impeccability of my elaboration. This article is thus an introduction to the highly exciting field of human multidimensional psychology and cognition that will play a central role in human experience after Ascension in the 5th dimension


When Spirit enters the human physical vessel and associates with the brain, it loses its cognitive ability to perceive All-That-Is in a simultaneous, multidimensional manner. Thus it becomes “human consciousness”. I refer to this kind of limited consciousness as “daily consciousness”, as human spirit acquires its original multidimensionality every night in the dream state. All human beliefs and prejudices that shape the current, rather primitive human civilisation stem from our daily consciousness by neglecting the multidimensional dream experience when the veil of forgetfulness is lifted and human perception expanded.

The Ascension of humanity to the 5th dimension will be in essence a full return of human consciousness to the dream state of Spirit, by eliminating all the limitations of daily consciousness once and for all. This is one valid definition of Ascension. There are many others, being aspects of the multidimensionality of All-That-Is.

Human consciousness in the incarnated state, also defined as “mind”, is limited by its sequential function, which prohibits the simultaneous experience of many parallel realities. The mechanism, how the sequential, slow operation of the human mind is achieved is not at all understood in present-day science. In fact, this basic fact is not even realized in psychology and neurobiology.

We can regard Spirit, in its individuation as human consciousness, as the software program of cognition of the incarnated entity and the brain – as its hardware. In this case, the brain fulfills the function of a bio-modulator which transforms the astral-energetic signals of Spirit into biological, neurological signals with the purpose of regulating and moving the physical vessel of the incarnated entity in the 3D space-time.

In this case, it is a fundamental blunder to believe that human consciousness can be found in the human skull, as all neuro-biologists erroneously preach nowadays. I recommend the reader to watch the recent interviews of Charlie Rose in Internet with prominent neuro-biologists on the functioning of the human brain, in order to realize the total confusion of present-day, empirically indoctrinated scientists with regard to the nature of human brain and mind by defining the brain as mind and vice versa and not being able to discern the obvious fact that they are energetically completely different systems as I shall explain below.

The CNS of human species is created in such a way as to function sequentially and to be able to harbor numerous energetic blockages. The latter have been deliberately inserted by the genetic co-creators of human species, the Anunnaki from the Orion/Reptilian Empire, and later on somewhat improved by the Sirians and other representatives of the Galactic Federation as to allow for the gradual evolution of humans in the course of their long incarnation cycle on earth.

During the current End Time, humanity already experiences a tremendous evolution of the human brain and mind, which is essentially achieved by eliminating step by step the numerous energetic blockades in the CNS, as well as in the mental and emotional body.

These blockades are fear-based patterns that operate according to the law of destructive interference at the biological and astral-emotional level. I have discussed the laws of constructive and destructive interference, which are the Cosmic Laws of Creation and Destruction in my book titled “The Cosmic Laws of Creation and Destruction“. The blockades are eliminated by creating new conditions of constructive interference in the brain and human consciousness/mind as part of Spirit and by augmenting the frequencies of the mental and emotional body, thus attuning them to the universal resonance of All-That-Is, which we perceive and define as “unconditional love”.

The establishment of constructive interference in the CNS is achieved by building new synaptic connections, which cannot be detected by current neurobiology, as they are beyond its ability to verify them experimentally. I shall now present a novel scientific approach in order to explain for the first time, how the soul regulates the human brain and prepares it energetically for the Ascension in the 5th dimension, where its capacity will be immensely increased from its current modest 8-10% effective potential. Present-day bio-science is completely unaware of this central theoretical aspect of the human brain in the current End Time.

Human consciousness (and perception) is highly compartmentalized – it is divided into numerous tiny facets of cognition. This is the chief reason for the highly illogical nature of human thinking as observed today, which I am trying to improve since 1995 with a modest success by having developed a novel axiomatic, logical method of thinking (see volume II (full version) on physics and the New Axiomatics of the Universal Law on this website). The improvement of human logical thinking will be the chief spiritual objective of all entities after Ascension in the 5th dimension.

The key mechanism for this compartmentalisation of human consciousness and the brain will be now elucidated for the first time in the history of modern science.

The CNS of humans can be regarded as an assembly of neurons, which are connected through neuronal synapses. A synapse is a junction between two neurons – a pre-synaptic and a post-synaptic neuron – with respect to the flow of neurological impulses. The latter are called in bio-science “action potentials”.

In my article on energetic gradients on this website, I have shown that all energy interactions, which we observe in All-That-Is, are products of energy gradients because Energy = All-That-Is manifests itself in form of energy gradients. The action potential of neurons, and of all body cells, is the universal energetic (electromagnetic) gradient, with the help of which the soul regulates the multi-cellular organic body of the incarnated entity, via the seven body chakras (see book “Evolutionary Leap of Mankind“). This topic is huge and can only be marginally mentioned in this article.

Every human cell builds an electromagnetic gradient across its membrane, called “membrane potential at rest”. This potential represents the universal form of storing energy in the organic body. This energy comes from the cell metabolism, which is essentially a cascade of chemical redox reactions that degrade human food, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats to protons and electrons. These are actively expelled on every biological membrane to build a cell membrane potential. The same potentials are also observed in cell organelles, in particular, in mitochondria. Watch also this video for a general understanding of membrane potentials:

I am the first scientist to have realized the true nature of cell membrane potentials for the regulation of the organic body and to have explained it in an immaculate manner, after I discovered the Universal Law of Nature in 1994.

Essentially, cell and human metabolism has only one purpose: To degrade food in the course of cell metabolism to protons and electrons and to build numerous membrane potentials in the cells. This is the stored electromagnetic energy of the organism, which is now used to regulate the cells and the body and to build new biochemical compounds for the regeneration of the cells and the organism.

In other words, the electro-chemical energy of the membrane potentials is the universal “vis vitalis” – the life-spending force – that keeps our bodies alive. All biological cells are highly sophisticated electromagnetic units based on carbon compounds and represent an advanced technology of the souls from the higher realms with the purpose of having experience in a material 3D environment.

There are many other incarnation experiments in the solar 3D universes of All-That-Is that have developed different forms of three-dimensional life, which have nothing to do with the carbon-based organic matter, as we know it on earth. For instance, the new light bodies of the ascended human beings will be of crystalline nature.

I am discussing here various aspects of bio-science in the context of the upcoming Ascension of humanity as to demonstrate how all aspects of this cosmic event are intrinsically linked with the foundation of present-day science, which has no idea about these key topics that will determine the destiny of humanity in the course of this and next year.

Let us summarize the basic tenets of our new energetic approach to organic matter in general, and to the CNS of humans in particular.

All human cells build a membrane potential. When they are at rest, the potential represents stored electromagnetic energy, which is obtained from the degradation of food in the cell metabolism. When a cell, for instance a neuron, is activated, the membrane potential is released in form of an “action potential”. An action potential is the basic electromagnetic wave of all human cells, with which the stored electromagnetic energy is transformed into biochemical energy, and the cells and the organism are kept alive.

This knowledge is currently not known in bio-science, although the existence of membrane potentials and action potentials in all body cells is known for more than 80 years. The well-known EEG and ECG of the brain, respectively, of the heart, are superimposed electromagnetic waves of all cells pertaining to these organs. It is astounding that this simple fact has not been theoretically elucidated in bio-science so far. Hence the total confusion which empiric science will experience after these facts are revealed to the broad public in the course of Ascension.

The whole biochemical energy from our food-intake is transformed in the body cells into electromagnetic energy (excluding the heat due to the body temperature that is radiated to the surroundings) of the membrane potentials and then again transformed into biochemical energy or matter in the course of the body regulation by the astral program of the incarnated soul the latter includes the body chakras and further body-regulatory astral systems of the soul. This is currently not known to all conventionally thinking scientists. All-That-Is = Energy is Energy-Exchange. Energy always flows from one form into another, as I have extensively explained in all my books.

Now that we have understood the energetic basis of body and cell metabolism, let us concentrate on the CNS and discuss its structure. The brain, the CNS, is an assembly of neurons which are connected through synapses. Each neuron consists of a cell body and several axons, which are prolongations of the cell body. All synapses in the CNS are built between the axons of the neurons or between axons and cell bodies. The whole brain function is exerted through such synapses.

Essentially, there are two kinds of synapses: a) excitatory and b) inhibitory synapses.

When an action potential is triggered in a neuron, it propagates along the axons and reaches the synapses. When this action potential is transferred to the post-synaptic neuron and triggers an action potential in it, we speak of “excitatory synapse”. When the action potential of the pre-synaptic neuron is inhibited on the synapse and cannot be propagated to the post-synaptic neuron, we speak of “inhibitory synapse”.

The whole regulation of the CNS is effected by such excitatory and inhibitory synapses, which are highly dynamic and are incessantly rearranged in the brain by the astral program of the soul. The whole intellectual evolution of the incarnated entity from a baby to an adult, including its reversal in the elderly, is based on the perennial rearrangement of infinite synapses in the human brain, which are as numerous as all stars in the Milky Way together.

All specialized neurological reactions, which are an object of study in neurobiology, are accomplished by such numerous synapses and clusters of synapses, topologically defined as “brain centres” – e.g., of vision, motion, etc.

However, the actual coordination of the human body is effected by the astral program of the soul, and the brain is merely a bio-modulatorthat translates these astral-energetic signals into specific clusters of synaptic impulses, which are then propagated by the peripheral nervous system throughout the whole body and trigger the various cell contractions and motions of muscles and internal organs. This is basic physiology that should be known by all readers from school biology.

We have learned so far that the action potential of a neuron is propagated along its axons and reaches the synapse to the next neuron. And now it becomes a little bit more complicated. The action potential is not simply transferred to the next neuron as an electromagnetic wave does in a wire, although the axons of the neurons can be regarded as biological wires for didactic purposes.

Each two neurons are separated at their synapse by the so-called “intrasynaptic gap (synaptic cleft)”. The action potential cannot jump like a lightning from one neuron to the next one. Instead it has to be first transformed into chemical energy in the intrasynaptic gap.

The action potential of each cell is nothing else, but a quick depolarisation of the membrane potential at rest. This depolarisation triggers a global stimulation of the cell. Its metabolism is rapidly augmented and it produces numerous biochemical compounds as part of the cell metabolism. In the case of neurons, the action potential triggers the excretion of neurotransmitters in the intrasynaptic gap of the synapse.

Neurotransmitters are physiological compounds of the neurons that can induce a new depolarisation of the adjacent post-synaptic neuron and depolarise it. Thus they induce a post-synaptic action potential that is further propagated. This is the principal energetic mechanism, according to which our brain and the whole nervous system operate.

Neurotransmitters are basic bio-molecules that participate in the brain function and modulate it in numerous ways. Most neurotransmitter are depolarising and activate the post-synaptic neuron by triggering a new action potential. Such an action potential is called “excitatory post-synaptic potential ” (EPSP).

Few neurotransmitters in the brain are of the repolarising type, i..e., they induce a repolarisation of the membrane potential at rest, so that the threshold of cell activation is increased and the post-synaptic neuron becomes inactive. It cannot trigger a new action potential. Such potentials are called “inhibitory post-synaptic potentials” (IPSP). This is basic neuro-physiology.

In fact, the inhibitory and excitatory synapses of the brain neurons are created by connecting their axons in a various manner. For instance, an axon of the pre-synaptic neuron is connected with another axon of an adjacent neuron, which is propagating an action potential to the second axon so that the latter can no longer be activated. Thus the synapse, which it builds, is inactivated and it behaves as an inhibitory synapse. There are numerous morphological connections between the various neurons and their axons in the CNS that create inhibitory or excitatory synapses. In this respect they ultimately create both, EPSP and IPSP, although the vast majority of neurotransmitters in the CNS are of the depolarising type, This fact is not alt all comprehended in pharmacology – hence its huge confusion on this issue, as we shall show below.

At this place, the reader may have asked himself, how does the author distinguish between depolarising and repolarising neurotransmitters. Indeed, this distinction is not known to current bio-science. I was the first researcher to discover this property of all biological compounds and to explain it with the physical theory of the Universal Law.

Principally, there are two kinds of bio-chemical moieties in the organism: depolarising and repolarising substances. Most of the neurotransmitters in the nervous system are of the depolarising type. However, there is a small number of neurotransmitters that cause a repolarisation of the membrane potential at rest. I have discussed this issue extensively in volume III.

1. All depolarising neurotransmitters or other bio-substances trigger an action potential in the cell and stimulate its metabolism.

2. All repolarising neurotransmitters or other bio-substances augment the threshold of activation of the membrane potential at rest and slow down cell metabolism. Such moieties cause maturation of the cell.

Both actions are physiological and are universally applied by the software-program of the soul to regulate the physical body. Between these two states – depolarisation and repolarisation of the body cells – there are infinite discrete energetic states that are responsible for the fine-tuned regulation of all cells in the body under the condition of global constructive interference. Please observe that all body cells are superimposed electromagnetic wave systems. This optimal state of the multicellular organic body is described in popular language as “health”.

Read also : Thoughts – Part I

The whole body regulation is effected by these two energetic phenomena – depolarisation and repolarisation. All biological compounds that are produced by the cells and excreted in the interstitial space between the cells and, from there, in the lymph and the blood system, contribute to this kind of stimulation of the body cells. This is the common effector level of all physiological compounds, but also of all drugs and other substances that are inserted in the human or any other organism.

This fundamental novel knowledge was first elaborated by myself in 1993-1994 in the course of my clinical research activities and led ultimately to the discovery of the Universal Law – first in organic matter and shortly thereafter in physical matter. This discovery was only possible with the active support and inspiration from the Highest Realms of Cosmic Providence as part of the enlightenment program for humanity in the End Time. To this, I shall say much more in future articles.

In the meantime, I hope that the competent reader has already asked himself the next crucial question: “How does the author discriminate between depolarising and repolarising substances, given the fact that this phenomenon is not known to bio-scientists yet?” This is, indeed, a very important question.

Here, I come to my next intellectual achievement in the field of bio-science – the so-called “dipole model”. This model is an application of the physical quantum theory of the Universal Law in bio-chemistry. The full description of this model is rather complicated, as it presupposes a detailed knowledge of the chemical structures of most organic substances and their function in the cell and the organism.

I have extensively discussed the dipole model in volume III on biological regulation published on this website. To this I shall say that much: I have tested the validity of the dipole model on most drugs, currently available on the market (more than 4000 chemical moieties) and on many important organic compounds and I have not found a single substance that does not comply with this model.

The new dipole model is of universal validity, as is the whole scientific theory of the Universal Law. It is based on the dipole moment of each chemical substance that can be elucidated from its chemical structure. I have established some very precise rules how to evaluate such substances based on their electromagnetic quantum structure. As already said, the new dipole model, based on these rules, has been confirmed on many thousand bio-chemical moieties and drugs without a single exception.

At this place, I come inevitably to a very depressing aspect of bio-science and medicine. According to the dipole model, all chemical moieties can be either cell-stimulating or cell-inhibiting – that is to say, they either stimulate the cell metabolism by triggering depolarisation or repolarisation of their membrane potentials or they inhibit the physiological regulation of the body cells by simply deleting the electromagnetic membrane potential with their numerous positively charged N-groups (nitrogen-groups) .

I have found out that about 90% of all synthetic drugs that are currently registered by the FDA and other pharmaceutical regulatory bodies and are available on the market are cell-inhibiting drugs. Such drugs disrupt the physiological regulation of the body cells, which is exerted through physiological depolarisation and repolarisation of the membrane potentials, and thus increase morbidity and mortality in the patients, especially when they are administered chronically.

I have calculated that the current health care system in the Western world, where it was primarily developed after WW2 parallel to the development of the pharmaceutical industry, has caused a massive holocaust (medical genocide) among the human population that is much greater than the holocaust of Slavonic and Jewish people in this war. This holocaust is still ongoing!

To prove this conclusion, I have analysed and quoted many excellent double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that have been performed and published after 1988, when the new FDA recommendations for drug approval demanded for the first time the conduct of placebo-controlled trials (see volume III).

Before 1988, all drugs were registered on insufficient or poor clinical evidence. These drugs make the bulk of all registered drugs nowadays.

When the new FDA recommendations were established, the clinical researchers, such as myself, found out that most tested active drugs for registration significantly increase mortality and morbidity when compared to placebo, that is to say, to no treatment. In the mean, between 1 and 3% percent of all tested patients were exterminated by the active drug treatments in comparison to placebo.

I have quoted more than 50 such “negative trials” in my book on biological regulation, which were published in such famous journals as Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine and should be known to all specialists in this field, However, until now most of these drugs are still on the market, although the irrefutable scientific proof that they kill patients has been furnished long time ago.

I have no other explanation for this dreadful fact, but to point out to the machinations of the Powers That Be that exert a firm control on the health care system in the Western countries and promote a genocide of incredible proportions on the human population with the aim of reducing it substantially in order to better control it in the End Time and thus prevent Ascension.

This background information is indispensable, as it will help us understand why some psychedelic drugs, which have been proven to have pronounced healing effects in many diseases and are known to have practically no adverse or side effects, have been forbidden for broad use by the dark forces in the pharmaceutical sector and the health care system.


Currently, scientists believe that the human brain uses only about 5-10% of its capacity. The rest of the brain neurons are believed to be redundant. This redundancy in the brain function has led in the past to the performance of such savage operations as brain lobotomy, where the two hemispheres are surgically severed in psychic patients. This criminal practice is still not wholly abandoned in some countries.

Now, let us take the concept of “biological redundancy” and analyse it from the point of view of common sense, because it is in the core of the present-day confusion in bio-science and medicine.

What does this term really mean? Does it postulate that Nature – understand All-That-Is or God – is so stupid as to have created redundant organs and tissues that have no apparent physiological purpose in the body? If this were true, God/Nature/the Soul, being the Creator of the incarnated entity, must be very stupid indeed. The other alternative is that scientists are so stupid that they cannot understand the purpose and function of organic matter and its components.

When the specialists in genetics tell us that 95% of all DNA has no function and should be considered “junk DNA”, we, being enlightened people, must immediately discern that this is a vivid manifestation of their imbecility that makes them susceptible to such faked concepts.

In reality, this concept was promoted by the Anunnaki (and the Greys) to cover-up their current clandestine genetic experiments with humans, which have led to the production of numerous human clones that now live among normal human beings and serve as stooges of the dark cabal in finance, industry and politics.

If the scientific community would have properly understood the role of the rest DNA for the astral regulation of the incarnated human entity, for instance, to store the whole information of all his previous and future incarnations that exist simultaneously in the “Now” of the higher realms, this would have automatically led to the insight that human species is not a petty product of Darwin’s biological evolution, but a multidimensional astral being and a powerful creator of his physical vessel and social destiny as an incarnated entity.

Human enslavement on earth has always been achieved by dumbing down the pristine knowledge of the incarnated human entity about his true energetic nature. Nowhere has, however, human deception been so profound and reckless as in science, and bio-science is the crowning of it.

However, the concept of biological redundancy of the CNS holds the key to a proper understanding as to how the amnesia of human beings is created in the brain.

The actual redundancy of the brain is that more than 90% of all its neuronal synapses are inhibitory and hinder the propagation of action potentials in the CNS. Only 5-10% are excitatory synapses and contribute to the propagation of neuronal signals within the brain. This well known fact has not been comprehended by all neuro-biologists so far. It is the key to an understanding of the pharmacological basis of psychedelic drugs.

There is another remarkable fact – we observe the reverse situation in the peripheral nervous system, where 90% of all motor neurons build excitatory synapses.

The regulation of the brain synapses is a highly dynamic process that takes place throughout the whole life. The modulation of the level of neuronal inhibition correlates closely with the degree of human amnesia with respect to the pristine realms of the soul. This fact is not at all comprehended in present-day bio-science.

The neuronal inhibition is comparatively low in the child’s brain and grows steadily after puberty when the ego is established and the orientation of the incarnated personality to the outer world reaches its peak. After the menopause, the level of neuronal inhibition in the brain diminishes slowly so that the elderly person gains again a better access to the inner realms of his soul and the astral dimensions.

It is not a coincidence that the spiritual enlightenment of most people truly unfolds at advanced age, usually after the 5th decennial (7 chakras X 7 years), when all seven chakras can be opened, depending on the soul age of the incarnated entity. This holds true in particular for the hypophysis (6th spiritual chakra) and the pineal gland (7th ecstatic chakra). Both chakras are involved in the building of human amnesia. When they are closed, the entity experiences a maximal amnesia. When they begin to open, the amnesia decreases and the consciousness is more susceptible to astral influences from the soul level.

Both chakras have a central role in the use of psychedelic drugs. Especially during the light body process, LBP, both, the pineal gland and the hypophysis, are liberated from their inhibitory neuronal synapses by the astral program of the soul and can open for the higher frequency energies of the 5th dimension. During the LBP, the two glands begin to grow. In the late phase of the LBP, their hypertrophy can be directly detected by computer tomography, which is a clear proof for their involvement in human amnesia, respectively, in its elimination with the help of psychedelic drugs.

From this elaboration we conclude that the level of inhibition at the neuronal synapses is instrumental for the establishment of human amnesia during incarnation.

The higher self of the incarnated entity is not influenced by this phenomenon in the brain, as it is always open to the multidimensionality of the higher realms.

The middle self, which also contains the astral program for the regulation of the brain as bio-modulator of astral signals, is fully involved in the building and rearrangement of neuronal inhibitory synapses. In fact, it is programmed by the soul and its genetic co-engineers, as the Anunnaki, in such a way as to establish this kind of energetic blockades at the biological level of the CNS. As the middle self is connected to the CNS, it can only operate in this restricted manner by sustaining the level of amnesia throughout the whole life and thereby enriching it with numerous prejudices, fear based beliefs and hallucinatory perceptions, which it avidly adopts from the surroundings.

The lower self operates at the subconscious level and is predominantly involved in the daily regulation of the organism, which takes place under the radar of daily consciousness of the incarnated entity. Only in cases of disease, injury, pain or great hunger does this invisible regulation immerse at the conscious level and can be actively experienced by the mind. Most of the time, the function of the lower self in body regulation is considered by the middle self as a “free lunch”.

This is the reason why bio-scientists have no theory on the function of the higher, middle, and lower self of the incarnated human beings and their participation in the creation of human amnesia. They are not even aware of the existence of these astral-energetic systems as part of human species. This is the reason why human amnesia is completely unknown as a phenomenon to scientists, and why they have failed to comprehend the psychedelic effects of such drugs as DMT, psilocin, mescaline, ecstasy, etc.

Obviously, the veil of forgetfulness, which the soul creates upon incarnation, is accomplished at the brain level by establishing an extensive inhibition of most neuronal synapses that block the free access of the middle self, around which the ego evolves in the course of human life, to the multidimensionality of the higher realms of the soul.

This inhibition is a dynamic process that changes throughout human life according to the demands of each biological age the latter are carefully determined by the soul prior to incarnation.

Children have, for instance, the lowest level of amnesia and are more open to the impulses of the soul – they are, so to say, nearer to God. This fact has been explicitly stated by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew 19:14), but it has been grossly misinterpreted by the Church.

All chemical compounds that enter the brain and influence the regulation of neuronal synapses, also influence human amnesia.

This pharmacological fact is not at all understood by all specialists at present.

For instance, all neurotransmitter of the CNS, such as adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine (catecholamines), etc. which cause depolarisation of the neurons, have a pronounced effect on human amnesia. In most cases, high levels of these neurotransmitters lower the degree of amnesia and augment the degree of ecstasy.

However, there are many other substances that trigger the same effect. There are many peptides that also cause depolarisation of the neuronal membrane potentials and influence human amnesia. The so-called enkephalins, also known as opioid peptides, such as met-enkephalin, have the same effect as the above mentioned neurotransmitters.

Met-enkephalin 3D structure, alpha-carbons shown as balls and labeled by residue

Not enough! Many amino acids, which were earlier considered to only build proteins, have a similar depolarising effect in the brain as the specialized neurotransmitters.

This fact proves that all chemical moieties exert an electromagnetic effect on the membrane potential of cells due to their dipole moment and can modulate it in terms of depolarisation or repolarisation. This finding was made for the first time by myself, when I applied the Universal Law to explain the regulation of organic matter.

Let us now introduce the group of psychedelic drugs and explain their pharmacological effects on the background of this theoretical elaboration. This group is a separate group of substances and should not be confused with other drugs, such as cannabis (marijuana) and cocaine. Psychedelic drugs are also called “hallucinogens” or “psychotomimetica”. Both terms are confusing and wrong.

Psychedelic experience is an experience of the multidimensionality of the soul or higher self by expanding the daily consciousness of the middle self. This experience is not a hallucination, but the only true experience of cosmic reality.

In fact, the experience of 3D space-time by the sequentially operating daily consciousness is the actual hallucinatory perception that creates the energetic plane of human experience as incarnated entities. This is not at all understood by all neuro-biologists. Hence their total confusion and ignorance with respect to their subject of experimental research.

A typical hallucinatory idea of the middle self of all conventionally thinking neurobiologists is to believe that the brain is the place, where human ideas are created and harbored. In fact the brain cannot think – it can only transform the astral impulses of the soul in neuronal action potentials and make them available to the mind as mental reactions.

These action potentials have the specific property to be retarded at the neuronal synapses during their propagation in the CNS. As we have pointed out above, the action potential cannot simply jump from one neuron to the next one at the synapse. Instead, the action potential of the pre-synaptic neuron causes a depolarisation of the membrane potential at rest and thus stimulates the excretion of neurotransmitters in the intrasynaptic gap. These neurotransmitters cause, on their part, the depolarisation of the post-synaptic membrane according to their dipole moment and thus trigger an excitatory or inhibitory post-synaptic potential.

The release of neurotransmitters in the intrasynaptic gap and the exertion of their effect on the post-synaptic membrane need some time. Therefore, it is a well-known fact that all neuronal signals, being action potentials, exhibit a pronounced retardation at all neuronal synapses during their propagation in the CNS or in the peripheral nervous system.

This retardation at the synapses makes the human brain work very slowly and in a sequential linear manner. This construction of the human brain has been deliberately created by the soul in this way as to eliminate the perception of simultaneity of all energetic interactions in the higher realms, which is the true reality of All-That-Is.

From a teleological point of view, it is precisely this retardation of the action potentials at the neuronal synapses of the brain that creates the illusion of sequential linear time and the 3D-space-time as subjectively perceived hallucinatory reality of the incarnated human beings. This fundamental gnostic fact has been extensively elaborated by myself in the New Gnosis of the Universal Law. It is in the core of all human cognition and its inherent limitations (see also my other German scientific books on Human Gnosis):

I have proved in the new physical theory of the Universal law that space sand conventional time tare one and the same quantity. To discriminate them, as it is done today in physics and science, and from there in everyday life, is the greatest illusion of human perception. This creates the hallucinatory idea of space-time in terms of extent/space and sequential time t.

The energetic basis for this illusion lies in the deliberate retardation of the neuronal impulses – the action potentials of the neurons – at every synapse in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system.

Thus, for the first time in the history of science I have achieved a full synthesis between all neuro-biological data and the a priori human idea of space-time, which is at the core of all philosophical systems developed so far – for instance, in Kant`s famous work “Kritik der reinen Vernunft” (“Critics of Pure Consciousness” see also my book “Philosophic Sources“).

Let us now summarize our previous discussion. Psychedelic experience is not a hallucination, as all pharmacologists erroneously believe nowadays, but the experience of the only true multidimensional reality of the soul and the higher realms. All experience of the human entities after Ascension will be in this sense psychedelic experience.

To illustrate how big the mental confusion currently is, I will quote a conventional description of the effects of psychedelic drugs, which can be found in the standard textbook on pharmacology “The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics” by Goodman and Gilman (McGraw-Hill, Intern.Edition, 1992, page 553):

.. but the feature that distinguishes the psychedelic agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity reliably to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise except in dreams or at time of religious exaltation . Most description of the “psychedelic state” include several major factors. There is heightened awareness of sensory input, often accompanied by an enhanced sense of clarity, but diminished control over what is experienced. Frequently there is a feeling that one part of the self seems to be a passive observer (a spectator “ego”) rather than an active organizing and directing force, while another part of the self participates and receives the vivid and unusual sensory experience. The attention of the user is turned inward, preempted by the seeming clarity and portentous quality of his or her own thinking process. In this state the slightest sensation may take on profound meaning. Commonly there is a diminished capacity to differentiate the boundaries of the object from another and of the self from the environment. Associated with the loss of boundaries, there may be a sense of union with “mankind” or the “cosmos”.

It is indeed a conundrum yet to be solved, how it was possible that this precise and vivid description of expanded multidimensional consciousness could have led to such wrong conclusions in pharmacology with respect to the effects of psychedelic drugs? For instance, “the diminishing capacity to differentiate the boundaries of objects from another and of the self from the environment” is nothing else, but the return of the restricted daily consciousness to the normal expanded perception of Oneness by the higher self, which knows that it is an inextricable part of All-That-Is.

The feeling of Oneness – “a sense of union with mankind and cosmos” – is not a pharmacological aberration of the psychedelic drugs on mind, as it is interpreted in pharmacology, but the ultimate goal of every incarnated entity on the path of spiritual evolution that will be achieved with the Ascension.

I hope that the reader now understands how profound the gnostic confusion in bio-science and medicine nowadays is, and why these sciences have to be fully eliminated in the 5th dimension. But this elimination must begin as mental process in the End Time prior to mass Ascension. Hence the urgency of this article prior to the first wave of Ascension of human beings.


The first psychedelic drugs that were used by humans were of plant origin and their use must have been as old as this mankind. The peyote cactus that contains mescaline and many mushrooms that contain psilocin were known to the indigenous population of South America since eons of time. Their healing effects were highly appreciated. Mescaline unleashed the first great interest of scientists in the effects of psychedelic drugs at the beginning of the 20th century, before LSD was discovered in 1943 and synthetically produced.

After that, there was a real boom in the research of psychedelic drugs. The hope was to find a solution for many psychic disorders that were widely distributed in the highly restrictive society at that time, where free sexual experience was a taboo. In the 50s, numerous publications on the effects of LSD appeared in prominent scientific journals. Many scientists, students, writers, and artists experimented extensively with LSD in order to explore the creative boundaries of human consciousness. Such powerful social movements as the Beatniks, flower power, and the popular revolt against the Vietnam war, which transformed the American society dramatically, were enhanced by the broad use of psychedelic drugs.

In 1970, under the huge pressure of the pharmaceutical industry and many conservative lobbies and state institutions, which were scared by the liberating potential of psychedelic drugs on the collective human consciousness and by the social consequences of such an expanded citizens’ awareness, these drugs were practically forbidden for broad use by classifying them in the same category as heroin.

The same holds true for DMT (dimethyltriptamine), which is a physiological compound of the human body, although it can be synthetically produced. The drug was classified as a schedule I drug under the UN 1971 Convention on psychotropic drugs, respectively under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 in the USA, and thus also put in the same category as other notorious drugs of addiction.

This decision has absolutely no foundation in any scientific evidence so far, even when we consider the data of present-day failed pharmacology and medicine. It has no other purpose, but to hinder the broad human population to gain transcendental multidimensional experience. In many past traditions, DMT was well known and broadly used, and was referred to as the “God’s drug”. I will talk below in more detail about this natural substance of human metabolism.

As I have already said, pharmacologists have no clear idea about the real transcendental effects of psychedelic drugs and their true pharmacological basis in the brain. Purely for this reason even their chemical classification is rather confusing and does not take into consideration the cell-stimulating or cell-inhibiting properties of these substances according to the dipole model, as this model is unknown to the conventionally thinking pharmacologists.

Departing from the dipole model, we can now establish a new rational classification and divide the psychedelic drugs in two sub-groups:

1. The LSD-group of cell-inhibiting psychedelic drugs, including LSD. psilocin and DMT. The last two drugs are of biological origin – psilocin of plant origin and DMT of plant and human origin, although the latter drug can also be synthetically produced. LSD is a half-synthetic drug.

2. The Mescaline-group of cell-stimulating, depolarising psychedelic drugs, including mescaline, DOM, DMA, MDA, MDMA (exstasy), MMDA, amphetamine and its derivatives.

This classification is unknown to conventional pharmacology, which operates in a state of total agnosticism with respect to the biological regulation of the human body and the actual pharmacological effects of external chemical moieties on the cells and the body in the context of this regulation.

Let us now explain for the first time in the history of bio-science the true pharmacological basis of psychedelic drugs, based on this novel classification. We have learned that more than 90% of all neuronal synapses in the brain are inhibitory, even though the action potentials in the CNS are triggered by depolarising, cell-stimulating neurotransmitters or other compounds, such as the amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, or by various peptides.

When the dipole model is applied, it becomes evident that the electromagnetic, quantum-chemical structure of all neurotransmitters of the catecholamine type (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, etc.) have a very similar dipole moment to that of the psychedelic drugs of the mescaline-group. This would say that these psychedelic drugs, so to say, mimic the effect of the physiological neurotransmitters in the brain: They enhance an overall depolarisation on all neuronal synapses, irrespectively of the final outcome. As most synapses in the brain are inhibitory, their inhibitory effect may be augmented. The same holds true for the excitatory synapses – they are also stimulated in excess, compared to the normal state.

One has to assess this situation from a global point of view as to comprehend the overall final pharmacological effect of psychedelic drugs in the brain. When 90% of all inhibitory synapses are additionally activated by cell-stimulating, depolarising psychedelic drugs of the mescaline-group, this does not mean that the overall inhibition in the brain is automatically increased. This enhancement leads in fact to an overall increase in excitatory synapses in the brain, as some inhibitory synapses are now transformed into excitatory synapses.

We have said above that when an excitatory synapse inhibits another pre-synaptic neuron, the latter cannot propagate an action potential. In the presence of depolarising psychedelic drugs of the mescaline-group, this pre-synaptic neuron can be now activated, although it is still inhibited by another axon, so that the sum-effect is an excess in excitatory synapses in the brain. The higher the number of excitatory synapses in the brain, the more open its software program – the middle self – is to the simultaneous, multidimensional, holistic perception of the higher self, respectively, of the soul.

This dialectical approach to the astral-energetic, pharmacological basis of psychedelic drugs is absolutely unknown to pharmacologists. This is the reason why they are completely lost in their interpretation of real psychedelic experience, which will be the future transcendental experience of all incarnated human beings, who will make a decision to ascend to the 5th dimension. This fact alone explains the importance of the present popular scientific article.

The psychedelic drugs of the mescaline-group have thus an overall modest effect in increasing the number of excitatory synapses in the brain and are thus not as potent as the drugs from the LSD-group, as I shall show below. They create a state of ecstasy, where the spirit is heightened, but the awareness is not totally diverted from the outer 3D reality. For that reason, the inward, transcendental experience is not as profound and intense as this is the case, for instance, with DMT or LSD.

The LSD-group consists of cell-inhibiting drugs. I have said above that the vast majority of physiological compounds in the body are cell-stimulating agents, either through depolarisation or repolarisation. However, there is a small number of biological substances that are cell-inhibiting. Most of them are found in bacteria and other primitive organisms.

Antibiotics are one such group of cell-inhibiting drugs that have an important role in current medical therapy. However, Nature knows very well the cell-inhibiting effect of such compounds and it produces them in the organism only in tiny quantities, and uses them only for selective, timely restricted actions. This is the case with DMT, which is produced in the brain predominantly in the vicinity of the pineal gland and the hypophysis. This is also the reason why this drug cannot be detected by neuro-biologists with their crude experimental methods in vivo, so that its existence in the brain is strongly questioned at present.

The same holds true for antibiotics. Their beneficial effect on bacterial infections is only within the first three days of acute therapy, when they can eliminate the majority of pathogenic germs in the organism. After that they only inhibit the immune system and contribute to the prolongation of the infection, thus stimulating the selection of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in the patient.

The occurrence of many antibiotic-resistant bacteria since the 80’s was the result of the chronic excessive antibiotic treatment of patients as recommended by all pharmaceutical companies with the objective of boosting their sales at the expense of the patients. The huge death rate of hospitalized patients caused by MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococci aureus) in the USA is due to this criminal practice of treating patients with antibiotics longer than three days. This additional explanation was meant to demonstrate how intertwined all medical and pharmacological problems are, and how incompetently they are solved by my colleagues, the medical doctors, and the pharmacologists.

As already mentioned, DMT is produced only in negligible quantities in the brain, because it can very easily open huge portals to the 5th dimension, where the Higher Self of the incarnated entity resides and has an unlimited access to the multidimensionality of All-That-Is. The middle self is thus expanded and its perception merges with that of the Higher Self. Especially in the current End Time, when the ego must be put aside, and the daily consciousness of the incarnated entities is lifted to the expanded awareness of the Higher Self in the course of the preparation for the Ascension, such psychedelic drugs will play a very important role in the evolution of human awareness.

However, they are currently prohibited by the Powers That Be, which have their strongholds in the financial and the heath care sector. They observe rigorously that the human population does not make any transcendental, psychedelic experiences, which will automatically jeopardize their control over present-day enslaved humanity. It is not a coincidence that among light workers the concept that the earth is a “prison-planet” has been firmly established.

The LSD-group is thus more potent that the mescaline-group in enhancing the number of excitatory synapses in the brain. This effect can be deduced with the help of the dipole model, which is an excellent tool in predicting the pharmacological effects of any drug based on its quantum-chemical structure. According to the dipole model, psilocin and DMT have a very similar dipole moment and must therefore exhibit similar psychedelic effects as they have only two positively charged N-groups in their chemical structure.


LSD is on the other hand a much more potent cell-inhibiting drug as it contains three N-groups, and its psychedelic effect must be accordingly much more pronounced.

This scientific prediction is brilliantly confirmed by the clinical evidence, as quoted in the above mentioned textbook on pharmacology:

“LSD is longer acting and more than 100 times more potent than psilocibin and psilocin, the active alkaloids in the Mexican “magic mushroom” it is 4000 times more potent than mescaline in producing altered states of consciousness”

We have already explained from a theoretical point of view why the mescaline-group is less potent than the LSD-group. This conclusion is now brilliantly confirmed by the clinical evidence, rendered by independent researchers. This fact demonstrates the ubiquitous validity of the dipole model in predicting the pharmacological effects of all drugs in the context of the General Theory of the Universal Law.

I have calculated in the late 90s that the implementation of this model in the pharmaceutical industry would have saved up to 400 billion dollars futile investments in the development of new drugs worldwide. However, this is not the cosmic plan for this planet. The pharmaceutical industry will collapse in the current End Time and will not exist anymore in the 5th dimension, where all humans will have crystalline bodies, which will be free of dis-ease and will be practically immortal.


Why is this discussion of psychedelic drugs so important at these times, which are the End Time of this humanity and planet? Because mankind will experience very soon its rupture in Ascended Masters, who will be multidimensional personalities and will operate from the 5th dimension, although they can always project a light body in the 3D space-time on earth, and in seemingly mortal human beings, who will suffer under the various constraints of their biological vessels in the collapsing 3D matrix.

This psychological abyss may tear human society apart, if the remaining human population is not given the possibility to have a personal experience of the multidimensional reality of Heaven, while still dwelling in physical vessel on this prison-planet. The psychedelic drugs are the ideal means to provide these people with valuable information about their soul contracts and to establish a vivid astral-energetic bond with the Higher Self.

It is a well-known fact that the first successful psychedelic experience after inhaling DMT creates in most cases a direct contact to the multidimensional level of the individual soul, so that the incarnated entity can gain intimate insights into the soul contract for his current incarnation. This knowledge leads automatically to a higher state of enlightenment and revelation, and usually transforms the psychological structure of the individual dramatically. The ego loses its grip on the personality, and the transcendence of human consciousness can begin. This will be the chief objective of all humans in the coming months and years.

Let me be clear on one issue. I have personally not used any psychedelic or other psychotropic drug in my life because I do not need them – I have an open channel to my soul. But I do strongly recommend the broad use of DMT or psilocin in the remaining time prior to Mass Ascension as to allow the vast majority of human beings, who have not progressed that much on the path of Ascension, to make their individual psychedelic experience in order to gain a glimpse into the multidimensional reality that is awaiting them in the 5th dimension. This is the stimulus, they need in order to make their final choice to ascend.

Not a single person, who has experienced the altered psychedelic state of Oneness with mankind and All-That-Is, will ever be able to fight a war and kill other human beings, as the USA is currently doing in three countries (Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan) officially and in many other countries unofficially.

The “God’s drug” DMT will be the pacemaker for real peace on this planet in the remaining 17 months prior to mass Ascension. Therefore, it should be promoted by the current health care system extensively, after it has been liberated from the despicable influence of the dark ones on this planet. Let us not forget that the psychedelic drug DMT, which I strongly recommend in this case, can be very cheaply produced and made available to the whole humanity.

Therefore, I will finally present some basic information on this drug, which the reader may expand by checking other encyclopedic sources.


N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a natural occurring psychedelic compound of the tryptamine-group. It is found in plants, animals, and in the human organism (brain). DMT is part of natural cell metabolism and is originally derived from the essential amino acid tryptophan, which plays a central role in the biological regulation of the cell (see volume III ) . Tryptophan is a precursor of many neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and the hormone melatonin, as well as many other psychedelic tryptamines, including psilocin.

In the human brain, DMT is mainly produced in the pineal gland in small quantities which cannot be directly detected.

DMT is the primary psychedelic compound in ayahuasca, a traditional native Amazonian brew, employed for divinatory and healing purposes by the indigenous population. Pharmacologically, ayahuasca combines DMT with an enzyme inhibitor MAO, which allows DMT to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and not being degraded in the liver.

The biosynthesis of DMT is fairly simple. The drug is stored as acid salts (powder). Its freebase form is better for inhalation because it has a lower boiling point. The standard dose varies between 15 – 60 mg. DMT is generally inhaled (smoked) in a few successive breaths. The onset of psychedelic effects begins in less than 45 seconds and lasts for 5 to 15 minutes.

These properties make DMT the ideal psychedelic drug. In the 60’s, when its consumption was still allowed, DMT was often described as “the businessman’s trip”.

DMT is not known to have any serious adverse or side effects. Its healing properties are well-known and highly appreciated among the indigenous population in South and Central America. There is substantial clinical evidence that DMT is released in great quantity from the pineal gland prior to death and is responsible for the near death experience (NDE). As already said, the use of DMT is practically forbidden by the registration authorities since 1970.

The author of this article has vast experience in clinical research and has conducted and managed many large international clinical trials in the 80’s and 90’s. In 1991, he founded the private institute for Drug Investigation, Auditing, and Statistics, DIAS Institute, in Munich, Germany. In 1994-1995 he discovered the Universal Law first in bio-science and later on in physics and developed the General Theory of Science of the Universal Law that is planned to unfold fully after mass Ascension of humanity to the 5th dimension. Therefore, it is correct to say that the new scientific theory of the Universal Law is at the same time the Science of Ascension.

Further information on the use of psychedelic drugs can be found in the book “Thoughts” in German language.

06 Jan Excitation and Inhibition

Most, if not all, neural information-processing functions involve the flow of action potential. Impulses in the nervous system are changes in the action potential or electrical charge of membranes. It is possible that, in addition to the membranes, the potential within the cytoplasm of the cell changes as a result of electrical flow in neurons. Potentials generally flow in one direction, from axons across synapses to dendrites, cell bodies, or other axons. Reverse transmission across synapses does not occur, although inhibitory responses can dull the effects of impulses.

The propagation of action potential can either be positive or negative. Positive waves or impulses are called excitatory and negative are called inhibitory (excitation and inhibition – collectively E/I). These action potentials vary widely in the amount of their positive or negative charges, and cumulative charges from multiple synapses will increase or decrease the action potential being propagated from cell to cell in the nervous system. Hyperpolarization can range from about -75 to -100 millivolts. Excitatory positive impulses depolarize the charge from -60 to +50 millivolts or more.

Understanding Context Cross-Reference
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Resting Potential

Neurons’ resting potential is about -70 millivolts they are said to be polarized with respect to external fluids. At any given time, most synapses are at resting potential. Inhibitory negative impulses increase or hyperpolarize the negative electromotive potential to -90 millivolts or further. Depolarization (excitation) reaches threshold value at around -40 millivolts. This curve illustration shows the attack curve of the excitatory impulse that occurs in the first millisecond of a typical excitatory impulse. This rise in the electrical potential is followed by a fall called its “decay.” Action potential decay at any point in a nerve fiber is usually as rapid as its firing. Impulses last around one millisecond.


When an impulse or spike arrives at a nerve ending, channels in the presynaptic membrane open. Where synaptic vesicles are in contact, neurotransmitter is released from the vesicles through the channel. Molecules of neurotransmitter chemical traverse the gap and bind with receptor molecules attached to the postsynaptic membrane. This causes channels in the target nerve’s fiber to open up, permitting the influx of positively charged sodium ions that are more concentrated outside the cell membrane than inside. The sodium residing in the cleft is the agent of excitation while other chemicals provide inhibition. The amount of neurotransmitter chemical released governs the aperture of the channels, thereby indirectly determining the intensity of the impulse transmitted.

Receptor channels are normally closed but they temporarily open when under the influence of neurotransmitters.The illustration at right shows a Closed Channel and an Open Channel. I like the way this video shows the process: Click here to see exocytosis. Here’s another that has nice subtitles.

The illustration below represents the shape of many impulses in the brain. Of course, human cognition involves the senses as well and possibly other nerve activities outside the brain, and those impulses may look very different as well. But this curve illustration is a good example to compare with computational models. The flow of electricity in a computer and its chips bears almost no resemblance to brain, neuron and synapse function or architecture. so as I seek to develop a model, I focus on the capabilities and the outcomes. But the mechanisms are important to the modeling assumptions I will be presenting in the next few posts.


Nerve impulses, triggered by changes in potential propagated through incoming synapses, accumulate at the place the axon leaves the soma. Channels in neuron membranes have gates at one or both ends that, when open, permit natural diffusion of chemicals through the membrane. Whether the voltage is positive or negative, this diffusion brings the voltage difference across the axon membrane closer to zero. Ahead of the affected region, channels in the membrane open and let sodium ions pour into the axon, creating a domino effect. Impulses travel from dendrites through the soma and down the axon to synapses. Stevens on the Flow of Sodium and Potassium Ions “The process is self-reinforcing: the flow of sodium ions through the membrane opens more channels and makes it easier for other ions to follow. The sodium ions that enter change the internal potential of the membrane from negative to positive. Soon after the sodium channels open, they close, and another group of channels open that let potassium ions flow out. This outflow restores the voltage inside the axon to its resting value of -70 millivolts” [Stevens, 1989, p. 7].

Ion Pumps

After the impulses have traveled down the axon to synapses, the resting potential of neurons and the proper disequilibrium of chemical molecular distribution is then restored by the action of ion pumps (see illustration). The restoration process affects potential latency and the permeability of membranes around the synaptic cleft. Thus, even when the level of excitation transmitted from one cell to the next is of limited intensity or duration, there is a time envelope during disequilibrium restoration in which membranes are more susceptible to electro-chemical influence. This is particularly useful in the muscular system because of our need to affect prolonged contractions for tasks like holding, carrying, and pushing. This will be discussed in more detail later.

In the context of cybernetics, the maintenance function provided by ion pumps presents interesting questions for modeling. For example, in an artificial neural network, how would the gradual return of a node (neuron) to resting potential be represented? Clearly, that process is opposed to the immediate spike and return with a short refraction period evidenced in many types of action potentials. Again, we will revisit this later.

The Entire Process

Mr. Beal’s Biology page has a great illustration of the chemical process cycle of an action potential:

The use of the term “undershoot” here and “overshoot” in other places should not be considered a contradiction. This beautiful illustration from Mr. Beals biology page helps in understanding the process. In upcoming posts – a little more detail on the curve itself.


Mammals adapt to a rapidly changing world because of the sophisticated cognitive functions that are supported by the neocortex. The neocortex, which forms almost 80% of the human brain, seems to have arisen from repeated duplication of a stereotypical microcircuit template with subtle specializations for different brain regions and species. The quest to unravel the blueprint of this template started more than a century ago and has revealed an immensely intricate design. The largest obstacle is the daunting variety of inhibitory interneurons that are found in the circuit. This review focuses on the organizing principles that govern the diversity of inhibitory interneurons and their circuits.

Synapse completion

Postsynaptic potentials are normally very brief and terminate through special mechanisms.

One of them is the inactivation of acetylcholine by an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase. Neurotransmitter molecules are removed from the synaptic space by reuptake or reabsorption by transporters that are on the presynaptic membrane.

Thus, both presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons have receptors that capture the presence of chemicals around them.

There are presynaptic receptors called autoreceptors that control the amount of neurotransmitter that the neuron releases or synthesizes.

Excitation and Inhibition: The Yin and Yang of the Brain

To make a working nervous system, only two forces are necessary: excitation The process by which a presynaptic neuron makes the postsyna. and inhibition The process by which a presynaptic neuron makes the postsyna. . Excitatory signaling from one cell to the next makes the latter cell more likely to fire. Inhibitory signaling makes the latter cell less likely to fire. At chemical synapses in the brain, glutamate The principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous sys. and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) are transmitters for excitation and inhibition, respectively. Admittedly, their names don&rsquot quite evoke symmetry &mdash one being evocative of cheap food seasoning and the other of a Swedish pop band. Yet, glutamate and GABA Gamma aminobutryic acid, the principal inhibitory neurotrans. are the Ying and Yang of the brain. Dopamine A monoamine neurotransmitter. Dopamine is involved in many b. , serotonin A monoamine neurotransmitter with a variety of functions. , norepinephrine, and other more celebrated brain chemicals have earned their fame as transmitters with much more specialized effects. But the bread and butter of the brain are unquestionably glutamate and GABA. In principle, a nervous system of only a handful of neurons and two transmitters &mdash excitatory and inhibitory &mdash is possible.

The balance between neural excitation and neural inhibition is crucial to healthy cognition and behavior. A brain dominated by glutamate would only be capable of exciting itself in repeated bursts of activity, similar to an epileptic seizure. Conversely, a brain dominated by GABA would only be capable of quiet whispers of activity, with little synchronization Coordination in time between components of a system such as . necessary for meaningful communication between brain areas. Healthy brain activity thrives in the middle area between these two extremes, where a balance between excitation and inhibition generates complex patterns of activity. Thus, a seemingly simple nervous system formed with only glutamate and GABA nonetheless results in highly complex activity.

Simulation of a Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

Similarly, a seemingly simple mixture of chemicals in a Petri dish can give rise to highly complex chemical reaction patterns, such as oscillating spiral waves, when a chemical that excites the reaction and a chemical that inhibits the reaction are both present. This general type of reaction, called the Belousov&ndashZhabotinsky reaction, has even been studied as a model for how neural networks process information, since the reaction&rsquos complexity is governed by similar principles.

Because complex patterns of brain activity are thought to underlie flexible behavior and cognition, the ratio between excitation and inhibition &mdash referred to as E/I balance &mdash is becoming increasingly recognized as a crucial measure for assessing the fitness of any brain. Schizophrenia, for example, has been associated with a low E/I ratio caused by weakly active glutamate receptors. Autism, on the other hand, has been associated with a high E/I ratio caused by weakly active GABA receptors. Even greater excesses of excitation or inhibition may result in epileptic seizures or brain coma, respectively. In fact, individuals with autism are far more likely to have epilepsy &mdash a condition that causes seizures &mdash than the average person, suggesting that both autism and epilepsy A nervous system disorder that causes seizures due to abnorm. are rooted in a high E/I ratio.

How does the synergy between excitation and inhibition work? Both excitation and inhibition, acting alone, attract the brain toward distinct patterns of relatively simple activity. The balance of both creates a critical state, like the boundary between a gas and a liquid. Outside the brain, many critical states are unstable, like a pencil that is balanced vertically on its tip but falls over after any further change in its position. Yet surprisingly, critical states in the brain are often self-maintained and robust to further changes. For instance, after synaptic input to a neural network has generated a critical state, further synaptic input maintains the critical state rather than pushing the network into a simple, stable pattern. For this reason, the phenomenon is called self-organized criticality, or SOC, a term for the concept developed by physicists Per Bak, Chao Tang, and Kurt Wiesenfeld of the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York.

SOC is thought to be important for brain function because it allows the brain a certain degree of flexibility. Just as a critical substance might flexibly switch between a gas and a liquid state, SOC might allow the brain to visit many different activity states. Wherever SOC is observed in nature, it seems to produce complex activity across many temporal and spatial scales as a result of a slow process that builds energy and a fast process that dissipates energy.

&hellip just as many spiritual practices advocate for maintaining an &ldquoinner balance,&rdquo a physical balance between opposing forces appears central to maintaining a healthy brain.

To better understand SOC, Bak and his colleagues imagined a familiar scenario: building a sandpile at the beach. The sandpile grows bigger until its slope reaches a certain steepness that results in a critical state. Adding more sand then triggers avalanches of sizes ranging from a few grains to sizable portions of the sandpile itself. In fact, the critical state persists even as you add more sand &mdash it is truly self-organized.

The two competing processes in this example are the slow process of adding sand, which builds energy, and the fast process resulting from the force of gravity overcoming the force friction, which dissipates energy. Perhaps this example feels far removed from the brain. But the slow process of adding sand is actually analogous to adding excitatory synaptic input in a neural network. Similarly, the fast process of gravity overcoming friction is analogous to neural excitation overcoming neural inhibition and triggering bursts of firing &mdash neuronal avalanches. Sandpile avalanches follow the same pattern observed in electrical brain recordings: activity is observed at all scales and frequencies, a result of delicate E/I balance.

In fact, we can alter the sandpile model to simulate disease states where excitation and inhibition are unbalanced. Imagine building a pile from glass beads rather than grains of sand. The smooth beads do not stick well, and the fragile pile collapses like a Jenga tower once it reaches a critical mass, never achieving true self-organized criticality. This is analogous to state of excessive neural excitation: synaptic inhibition is too weak to stop the storms of excitatory bursting that interrupt complex signaling and form seizures. Conversely, imagine building a sandpile using wet sand: the wet sand is sticky, resulting in few avalanches as the cohesiveness of the sand is too high. This is analogous to a state of excessive neural inhibition: excitatory drive cannot overcome the suffocating grip of synaptic inhibition, hampering neural computations that depend on complex signaling.

Because electrical brain activity can easily be observed by placing electrodes on the scalp (EEG), it is possible for researchers and clinicians to infer E/I balance without directly probing cells in the brain. For example, epileptiform discharges&mdashbursts of disruptive excitement&mdashare clear signatures of a high E/I ratio. These discharges may indicate that the brain has been pushed past criticality to a supercritical state. Though traditionally associated with epilepsy, epileptiform discharges may also occur in the EEGs of patients who have never had a single seizure An event that is associated with uncontrolled and excessive . before. An emerging concept of &ldquoepilepsy spectrum disorders&rdquo seeks to frame mental illnesses, such as panic disorder, in the same context as epilepsy. Dr. Nash N. Boutros at the University of Missouri, Kansas City is exploring epileptiform discharges in patients with panic attacks as possible indicators of the same high E/I ratio that causes epilepsy. If panic disorders and epilepsy share a common cause, they might both be treatable with antiepileptic drugs. While such drugs generally treat seizures, they are believed to decrease neuronal excitability and have also been approved by the FDA to treat bipolar disorder, a psychiatric disorder A mental illness that can be treated by a psychiatrist. where patients experience states of both elevated and lowered mood.

In the near future, drugs that alter neuronal excitability may show promise in guiding the diseased brain towards E/I balance. Indeed, just as many spiritual practices advocate for maintaining an &ldquoinner balance,&rdquo a physical balance between opposing forces appears central to maintaining a healthy brain. The synergy between opposites observed in the brain reminds us that complexity requires a balance. While empirical evidence has shown that brain size or brain mass is not the best measure of brain fitness, E/I balance might instead contend for that title. One day, a checkup at the doctor&rsquos office might not just involve taking your pulse, height, and weight, but also an EEG Electroencephalogram, a technique that places electrodes on . reading of your E/I ratio.

Written by Joel Frohlich.

This article was also featured in Psychology Today.

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